HISTORY OF CARPATHO-RUSYNS IN AMERICA
By Bogdan Horbal ©1996 all rights reserved.
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The largest community of Carpatho-Rusyns living beyond the Carpathians is
found in the United States. Today there are approximately 600,000 Americans of
Carpatho-Rusyn origin. A valuable discussion on Carpatho-Rusyn immigration can
be found in:
- Richard Renoff (b. 1936) and Stephen Reynolds (b. 1937) Editors,
Proceedings of the Conference on Carpatho-Ruthenian Immigration,
Harvard University, 1975,
- Richard Renoff, Carpatho-Ruthenian Resources
and Assimilation 1880-1924, [Fairview, NJ, 1984];
- Paul R.Magocsi
(b.1945), Our People - Carpatho-Rusyns and their descendants in North
America, Toronto, 1984;
- Alexander Baran (b.1926), "Carpatho-Ukrainian
Emigration 1870-1914", in: New Soil-Old Roots: The Ukrainian
Experience in Canada, Winnipeg 1983, p.252-275.
(1905-1976) gives the example of immigration from one Carpatho-Rusyn village in:
Karpatorossy v Europi i Ameriki, primir Kamionka,
[Carpatho-Rusyns in Europe and America, the Example of [the Village] of
Kamionka], Cleveland, 1940.
- IUliian Bachyns'kyj (1870-19??) deals with the period before 1914 and
constantly blames Carpatho-Rusyns for anti-Ukrainian separatism in his:
Ukrains'ka immigratsiia v Z"iednanykh Derzhavach Ameryky [Ukrainian
Immigration in the United States], L'viv 1914.
On the same period see also:
Ladislav Tajtak, "Pereselennia ukraintsiv Skhidnoi Slovachchyny do 1913 r."
[The Emigration of Ukrainians from Eastern Slovakia before 1913], Duklia,
IX, 4 (Presov, 1961), p.97-103, and Oleksander Mytsiuk (1883-1943), "Z
emihratsii uhro-rusyniv pered svitovoiu viinoiu" [On the Emigration of the
Uhro-Rusyns Before the World War], Naukovyi zbornyk tovarystva Prosvita,
XIII-XIV (Uzhhorod, 1937-38), p.21-32.
Petr Kokhanik (1880-1969), describes the beginning of immigration and
(mostly Orthodox) religious life at that time, in his:
- Rus' i
pravoslavie v Sivernoi Amerikie, [Rus' and Orthodoxy in North America],
Wilkes-Barre, 1920, and also in: "Nachalo istorii Amerikanskoi Rusi"
[The Early History of American Rus'], reprinted in: Filipp I. Svistun
(1844-1916), Prikarpatskaia Rus' pod vladeniem Avstrii
[Galician Rus' under Austrian Rule], Trumbull, CT, 1970, p.473-496.
beginnings of the conversion of Carpatho-Rusyns to Orthodoxy can be also traced
- Alexis Toth (1853-1909), Letters, Articles, Papers and Sermons,
vol.1-4, Chilliwack-Minneapolis, 1978-88.
The fate of Greek-Catholic Rusyns
could be researched in an anthology of documents, which was compiled by John
Historical Mirror Sources of the Rusin and
Hungarian Greek Rite Catholics in the United States of America 1884-1963,
See also: Walter Warzecki (b.1929) "The Rusin Community in
Pennsylvania", in: The Ethnic Experience in Pennsylvania,
Lewisburg, , p.175-216 and Basil Shereghy (1918-1988), The
Byzantine Catholics, Pittsburgh, 1981.
Several documents describe the activity of American Carpatho-Rusyn and
- Memorandum Russkago kongressa v Amerikie,
sozvannago 'Soiuzom Osvobozhdennia Prikarpatskoi Rusi', posviashchaemyi
svobodnomu russkomu narodu v Rossii, Russkomu uchreditel'nomu sobraniu, Russkomu
pravitel'stvu [Memorandum of the Russian Congress in America, Called
Together by the League for the Liberation of Carpatho-Russia, Concerning Free
Russian Nation in Russia, Russian Constituent Meeting, Russian Government],
- Memorandum of the Carpatho-Russian Council in America,
Concerning Eastern Galicia with Lemkivschina and Bukovina, New York,
- Tretii vseobshchii karpatorusskii kongress v Amerike
[The Third General Carpatho-Russian Congress in America] New York, 1919-20;
Victor Hladyk (1873-1947), Proekt memoranduma amerikanskikh grazhdan
karpatorusskago i voobshche russkago proiskhozhdeniia v dili vozsoedinieniia
vsikh russkikh zemel' s Rossiei [The Draft of the Memorandum of
American Citizens of Carpatho-Russian and Generally Russian Origin Dealing with
the Reunification of All the Russian Lands with Russia], Philadelphia, 1941.
document tells about Hungarian interest in American Rusyns: Hungary
Exposed:Secret State Document reveal[s] the plotting of that Government in the
United States. American Slovaks and Ruthenians...to be the victims,
[New York, 1907?].
On the political activity of Transcarpathian Rusyns during the turbulent
period after the First World War see:
Joseph Danko, "Plebiscite of
Carpatho-Ruthenians in the United States recommending Union of Carpatho-Ruthenia
with the Czechoslovak Republic", Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of
Arts and Sciences, XI, 1-2 (New York, 1964-68), p.184-207 (6 documents) and
Paul R.Magocsi (b.1945), "The Political Activity of Rusyn-American
Immigrants in 1918", East European Quarterly, X, 2 (Boulder,
Colorado, 1976), p.347-365. See also memoirs by one of the political activists
of that period, Petr Hatalák, Jak vznikla myslenka pripojity
Podkarpatskou Rus k Ceskoslovensku [How the Idea Arose to Unite
Subcarpathian Rus' with Czechoslovakia], Uzhhorod, 1935.
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